Ashby’s law

Ashby’s law or The law of requisite variety: If a system is to be stable, the number of states of its control mechanism must be greater than or equal to the number of states in the system being controlled.


Complex Vs. Complicated – both of them are built from many components, and it takes time to understand them. The complex systems though are composed of parts that interact one with each other. Due to the interaction property, complex systems are tough to predict, while complicated systems are straightforward to predict.

Emergent properties

Emergent properties: An emergent property is a property which a collection or complex system has, but which the individual members do not have.


Variety: The total number of possible states of a system, or elements of a system.

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